Edward M. De Robertis, M.D., Ph.D.

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ederobertis@mednet.ucla.edu Work Address:
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5-612A MRL
Los Angeles, CA 90095
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Campus 166222
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UNITED STATES

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5-619 MRL
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES


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(310) 206-1463

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Edward M. De Robertis, M.D., Ph.D.

Department / Division Affiliations
Norman Sprague Professor, Biological Chemistry
Member, ACCESS Program: Dept. of Biological Chemistry, Access Cell and Developmental Biology Home Area, JCCC Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program Area
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Awards

National Academy of Sciences Member
Pontifical Academy of Sciences Corresponding Member
American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow
Latin American Academy of Sciences Corresponding Member
2013 Universite La Sorbonne Doctor Honoris Causa
1997- National Institutes of Health MERIT Award
1997- College de France, Paris Public Lecture Series and Medal
European Molecular Biology Organization Member
School of Medicine, Uruguay Gold Medal to the top 1971 medical student

Professional Affiliations

2002-2006 International Society of Developmental Biologists (ISDB) President
1998- Societe de Biologie, Paris, France Foreign Corresponding Member

Research Interest:

Cell-Cell Communication During Embryonic Induction

Research Summary

Edward De Robertis studies how long-range cell communication between the dorsal and ventral sides of the embryo occurs through the diffusion of growth factor antagonists. The discovery of Chordin, a BMP antagonist, provided a new paradigm in which facilitated diffusion of a morphogen takes place in the narrow extracellular space that separates the ectoderm from the endomesoderm. This gradient is further integrated with Wnt signaling through the sequestration of the enzyme GSK3 inside multivesicular endosomes.

Within the organism cells do not lead individual lives. They differentiate, proliferate, and die as part of groups of hundreds or thousands of cells called morphogenetic fields, which have the remarkable property of self-regulating pattern after perturbations such as bisection. The aim of our research is to discover the molecular mechanisms by which self-regulation works.

Spemann's Dorsal Organizer

A foundation for understanding self-regulation was provided by an experiment carried out by Spemann and Mangold more than 80 years ago involving grafting of the dorsal lip region of the amphibian embryo. They found that a small group of cells, called the organizer, is able to induce Siamese twins, including a complete central nervous system (CNS), in neighboring cells. Hans Spemann received the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this discovery of embryonic induction. Isolating the molecules involved in these cell-cell inductions has been the Holy Grail of embryology. Using the frog Xenopus, we have isolated multiple genes that encode secreted proteins expressed specifically in Spemann's organizer. Studies on Chordin, Cerberus, Frzb-1, and Crescent have contributed to the current realization that growth factor antagonists secreted into the extracellular space mediate the formation of embryonic signaling gradients.

Dorsal-Ventral Communication

The entire embryo participates in the dorsal-ventral (D-V) morphogenetic field. Chordin is produced dorsally and another secreted protein, Sizzled, is expressed in the ventral side. We used molecular cloning and biochemical methods to unravel a network of Chordin-interacting proteins that form a self-regulating gradient of BMP activity. Key components are dorsal and ventral BMPs as well as Tolloid, a protease that we found specifically cleaves Chordin, releasing active BMPs in the ventral side. Sizzled and BMPs bind to Tolloid and inhibit its rate-limiting enzyme activity. Self-regulation results from the dorsal and ventral centers being under opposite transcriptional control: when BMP levels are lowered, production of dorsal ADMP and BMP2 is increased; at high BMP levels, feedback inhibitors such as Sizzled dampen the signal by inhibiting the degradation of Chordin.

The Chordin Gradient

In the ectoderm, BMP inhibition causes differentiation of CNS, and high levels of BMP signaling induce epidermis. In the mesoderm, at low levels of BMP signaling notochord is formed, and at progressively higher levels kidney, lateral plate mesoderm, and blood tissues are induced. Thus, histotypic differentiation in the vertebrate embryo depends on the graded activity of BMP. Remarkably, the three germ layers respond coordinately to changes in BMP signaling. A key question is whether a single signaling gradient or multiple ones are used to pattern the cell differentiation of the different germ layers. We developed a novel immunolocalization method to follow the distribution of endogenous Chordin during Xenopus gastrulation. Chordin protein secreted by the dorsal Spemann organizer was found to diffuse along a narrow region that separates the ectoderm from anterior endoderm and mesoderm. This fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), called Brachet's cleft in Xenopus, is present in all vertebrate embryos. Chordin forms a smooth gradient that encircles the embryo, diffusing over a distance of 2 mm in this signaling highway between ectoderm and mesoderm. After embryo bisection or transplantation of an organizer, the gradient self-regulates. Chordin must reach very high concentrations in this narrow space. It appears that as ectoderm and mesoderm undergo morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, cells in both germ layers read their positional information from a common Chordin/BMP gradient in ECM.

Integrating BMP and Wnt Signaling

The Chordin/BMP biochemical pathway explains cell differentiation along the D-V axis. However, embryonic morphology is also regulated by other morphogens, such as Wnt and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). How are these signaling pathways integrated seamlessly in the embryo? Wnt signals by inhibiting a protein kinase called glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. While investigating the BMP transcription factor Smad1 phosphorylation by GSK3, we discovered a novel cellular mechanism for cell signaling. Upon Wnt signaling, cytosolic GSK3 binds to the Wnt receptor complex, which consists of the Frizzled and LRP6 coreceptors, Axin, Dishevelled, and β-catenin. All of these proteins are substrates for GSK3, which is translocated together with them into small intraluminal vesicles located inside multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In this way, GSK3 becomes sequestered from its many cytosolic substrates. MVBs are an obligatory intermediate organelle for the trafficking of activated plasma membrane receptors destined for degradation in lysosomes. The sequestration of GSK3 requires the activity of ESCRT proteins required for the formation of MVB intraluminal vesicles, such as HRS/Vp27 and Vps4, which we found are also essential for canonical Wnt signaling.

The GSK3 sequestration mechanism has predictive value. Interfering with membrane trafficking downstream of MVB formation potentiates Wnt signaling by causing GSK3 to remain sequestered inside MVBs for longer periods. We found that depletion of Presenilin 1 and 2, two intramembrane proteases mutated in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease and required for membrane trafficking, greatly increased Wnt/GSK3 signaling, suggesting novel pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease.

Remarkably, the sequestration of GSK3 extended the half-life of many proteins in addition to the well-known Wnt target beta-catenin. Pulse-chase studies with radioactive amino acids showed that total cellular half-life is extended by Wnt3a treatment. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that 20 percent of human proteins contain three or more putative GSK3 sites in a row. This is a much higher frequency than expected at random. Our ongoing studies indicate that GSK3 sites can be predictors of proteins regulated by Wnt. For example, we find that in the presence of FGF, which promotes a mitogen-activated protein kinase that primes phosphorylation by GSK3, Smad4 activity is potently increased by Wnt. This suggests that the transforming growth factor beta/Nodal morphogen gradient, which is fundamental for mesoderm induction, may be intimately integrated with the FGF and Wnt gradients. Smad4 is a tumor suppressor that is depleted during progression of pancreatic, colorectal, and prostate cancers. The discovery that its activity is not constitutive but rather is regulated by FGF and Wnt may have applications in cancer treatment.

In conclusion, efforts to uncover the molecular basis of embryonic self-regulation have shown that the differentiation of embryonic tissue types is regulated by an extracellular gradient of proteins diffusing between ectoderm and endomesoderm. Studies of basic embryonic patterning mechanism led to the discovery of unexpected connections between endosomal trafficking, growth factor signaling, and protein degradation, which are being actively explored.

Biography:

Dr. De Robertis is also Norman Sprague Professor of Biological Chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine. He received an M.D. from the University of Uruguay and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires. His postdoctoral training was with Sir John Gurdon at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, U.K. Before moving to UCLA, he was professor at the University of Basel. Dr. De Robertis is a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the European Molecular Biology Organization and the Latin American Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He served as President of the International Society of Developmental Biologists until 2006.

Publications:

Plouhinec, Jean-Louis, Zakin, Lise, Moriyama, Yuki and De Robertis, Edward M. Chordin forms a self-organizing morphogen gradient in the extracellular space between ectoderm and mesoderm in the Xenopus embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2013; 110: 29372-20379.
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De Robertis, Edward M. and Colozza, Gabriele Scaling to size by protease inhibition. Curr. Biol. 2013; 23: R652-R654.
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Dobrowolski, R. and De Robertis, E.M. Endocytic control of growth factor signaling: multivesicular bodies as signaling organelles. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2012; 13: 53-60.
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Dobrowolski Radek, De Robertis Edward M Endocytic control of growth factor signalling: multivesicular bodies as signalling organelles. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology. 2012; 13(1): 53-60.
Dobrowolski, R., Vick, P., Ploper, D., Gumper, I., Snitkin, H., Sabatini, D.D. and De Robertis, E.M. Presenilin deficiency or lysosomal inhibition enhance Wnt signaling through relocalization of GSK3 to the late endosomal compartment. Cell Reports. 2012; 2: 1316-1328.
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Dobrowolski Radek, Vick Philipp, Ploper Diego, Gumper Iwona, Snitkin Harriet, Sabatini David D, De Robertis Edward M Presenilin deficiency or lysosomal inhibition enhances Wnt signaling through relocalization of GSK3 to the late-endosomal compartment. Cell reports. 2012; 2(5): 1316-28.
Ploper Diego, Lee Hojoon X, De Robertis Edward M Dorsal-Ventral patterning: Crescent is a dorsally secreted Frizzled-related protein that competitively inhibits Tolloid proteases. Developmental Biology. 2011; 352: 317-328.
Eivers, E., Demagny, H., Choi, R.H. and De Robertis, E.M. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between Wingless and BMP signaling. Science Signaling. 2011; 4: ra68.
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Eivers Edward, Demagny Hadrien, Choi Renee H, De Robertis Edward M Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling. Science signaling. 2011; 4(194): ra68.
Plouhinec, J.L., Zakin, L. and De Robertis, E.M. Systems control of BMP morphogen flow in vertebrate embryos. Curr. Opin. Genet Dev. 2011; 21: 1-8.
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Vorwald-Denholtz, P.P. and De Robertis, E.M. Temporal pattern of the posterior expression of Wingless in Drosophila. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011; 11: 456-463.
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Vorwald-Denholtz Peggy P, De Robertis Edward M Temporal pattern of the posterior expression of Wingless in Drosophila blastoderm. Gene expression patterns : GEP. 2011; 11(7): 456-63.
Zakin Lise, Chang Ellen Y, Plouhinec Jean-Louis, De Robertis E M Crossveinless-2 is required for the relocalization of Chordin protein within the vertebral field in mouse embryos. Developmental biology. 2010; 347(1): 204-15.
Sander Veronika, Eivers Edward, Choi Renee H, De Robertis Edward M Drosophila Smad2 opposes Mad signaling during wing vein development. PloS one. 2010; 5(4): e10383.
Zakin Lise, De Robertis E M Extracellular regulation of BMP signaling. Current biology : CB. 2010; 20(3): R89-92.
Tran Uyen, Zakin Lise, Schweickert Axel, Agrawal Raman, Döger Remziye, Blum Martin, De Robertis E M, Wessely Oliver The RNA-binding protein bicaudal C regulates polycystin 2 in the kidney by antagonizing miR-17 activity. Development (Cambridge, England). 2010; 137(7): 1107-16.
De Robertis Edward M Wnt signaling in axial patterning and regeneration: lessons from planaria. Science signaling. 2010; 3(127): pe21.
Taelman Vincent F, Dobrowolski Radoslaw, Plouhinec Jean-Louis, Fuentealba Luis C, Vorwald Peggy P, Gumper Iwona, Sabatini David D, De Robertis Edward M Wnt signaling requires sequestration of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inside multivesicular endosomes. Cell. 2010; 143(7): 1136-1148.
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Lee, H.X., Mendes, F.A., Plouhinec, J.L. and De Robertis, E.M. Enzymatic regulation of pattern: BMP4 binds CUB domains of Tolloids and inhibits proteinase activity. Genes Dev. 2009; 23: 2551-2562.
Lee Hojoon X, Mendes Fabio A, Plouhinec Jean-Louis, De Robertis Edward M Enzymatic regulation of pattern: BMP4 binds CUB domains of Tolloids and inhibits proteinase activity. Genes & development. 2009; 23(21): 2551-62.
Eivers, E., Demagny, H. and De Robertis, E.M. Integration of BMP and Wnt signaling via vertebrate Smad1/5/8 and Drosophila Mad. Cytokine Growth F. R. 2009; 20: 357-365.
Fuentealba, L.C., Eivers, E., Geissert, D., Taelman, V. and De Robertis, E.M. Asymmetric mitosis: Unequal segregation of proteins destined for degradation. PNAS. 2008; 105: 7732-7737.
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Ambrosio, A.L., Taelman, V.F., Lee, H.X., Metzinger, C.A., Coffinier, C. and De Robertis, E.M. Crossveinless-2 is a BMP feedback inhibitor that binds Chordin/BMP to regulate Xenopus embryonic patterning. Dev. Cell. 2008; 15: 248-260.
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Zakin, L., Metzinger, C.A., Chang, E.Y., Coffinier, C. and De Robertis, E.M. Development of the vertebral morphogenetic field in the mouse: interactions between Crossveinless-2 and Twisted gastrulation. Dev. Biol. 2008; 323: 6-18.
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De Robertis, E.M. Evo-Devo: Variations on Ancestral themes. Cell. 2008; 132: 185-195.
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De Robertis, E.M. Evolutionary Biology Commentary: The molecular ancestry of segmentation mechanisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2008; 105: 16411-16412.
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Ishibashi, H., Matsumura, N., Hanafusa, H., Matsumoto, K., De Robertis, E.M. and Kuroda, H. Expression of Siamois and Twin in the blastula Chordin/Noggin signaling center is required for brain formation in Xenopus laevis embryos. Mech. Dev 2008; 125: 58-66.
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Eivers, E., Fuentealba, L.C. and De Robertis, E.M. Integrating positional information at the level of Smad1/5/8. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. . 2008; 18: 304-310.
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Yasuda, S., Tanaka, H., Sugiura, H., Okamura, K., Sakaguchi, T., Tran, U., Takemiya, T., Mizoguchi, A., Yagita, Y., Sakurai, T., De Robertis, E.M. and Yamagata, K. Activity-induced protocadherin Arcadlin regulates dendritic spine number by triggering N-Cadherin endocytosis via TAO2? and p38 MAP kinases. Neuron 2007; 56: 456-471.
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Fuentealba, L.C., Eivers, E., Ikeda, A., Hurtado, C., Kuroda, H., Pera, E.M. and De Robertis, E.M. Integrating patterning signals: Wnt/GSK3 regulates the duration of the BMP/Smad1 signal. Cell. 2007; 131: 980-993.
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Fuentealba Luis C, Eivers Edward, Ikeda Atsushi, Hurtado Cecilia, Kuroda Hiroki, Pera Edgar M, De Robertis Edward M Integrating patterning signals: Wnt/GSK3 regulates the duration of the BMP/Smad1 signal. Cell. 2007; 131(5): 980-93.
Hurtado, C. and De Robertis, E. M. Neural induction in the absence of organizer in salamanders is mediated by MAPK. Dev. Biol. 2007; 307: 282-289.
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Plouhinec, J.-L. and De Robertis, E.M. Systems biology of embryonic morphogens. Mol. Biosyst. 2007; 3: 454-457.
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Sander, V., Reversade, B. and De Robertis E.M. The opposing homeobox genes Goosecoid and Vent1/2 self-regulate Xenopus patterning. EMBO J. 2007; 26: 2955-2965.
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Lee HX, Ambrosio AL, Reversade B, De Robertis EM Embyonic dorsal-ventral signaling: secreted Frizzled-related proteins as inhibitors of Tolloid proteases. Cell. 2006; 124: 147-159.
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De Robertis EM Spemann's organizer and self-regulation in amphibian embryos. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2006; 7: 296-302.
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De Robertis Edward M Spemann's organizer and self-regulation in amphibian embryos. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology. 2006; 7(4): 296-302.
Kuroda H, Fuentealba L, Ikeda A, Reversade B, De Robertis EM Default neural induction: neuralization of dissociated Xenopus cells is mediated by Ras/MAPK activation. Genes & development. . 2005; 19(9): 1022-7.
Reversade B, Kuroda H, Lee H, Mays A, De Robertis EM Depletion of BMP2, 4, 7 and Spemann organizer signals induces massive brain formation in Xenopus embryo. Development. 2005; 132: 3381-3392.
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Pera EM, Hou S, Strate I, Wessely O, De Robertis EM Exploration of the extracellular space by a large-scale secretion screen in the early Xenopus embryo. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 2005; 49: 781-796.
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Reversade B, De Robertis EM Formation of a self-differentiating morphogenetic field via reciprocal regulation of Admp and Bmp2/4/7 at opposite poles of the Xenopus embryo. Cell. 2005; 123: 1147-1160.
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Zakin L, Reversade B, Kuroda H, Lyons KM, De Robertis EM Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Twisted gastrulation composed mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm. Development. 2005; 132: 2489-2499.
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Wessely O, Kim JI, Tran U, Fuentealba L, De Robertis EM xBtg-x regulates Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling during early Xenopus development. Developmental biology. . 2005; 283(1): 17-28.
Wessely O, Kim JI, Geissert D, Tran U, De Robertis EM Analysis of Spemann organizer formation in Xenopus embryos by cDNA macroarrays. Developmental biology. . 2004; 269(2): 552-66.
De Robertis EM, Kuroda H Dorsal-ventral patterning and neural induction in Xenopus embryos. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. . 2004; 20: 285-308.
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Oelgeschlager M, Tran U, Grubisic K, De Robertis EM Identification of a second Xenopus twisted gastrulation gene. Int J Dev Biol. 2004; 48(1): 57-61.
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Zakin L, De Robertis EM Inactivation of mouse Twisted gastrulation reveals its role in promoting Bmp4 activity during forebrain development. Development (Cambridge, England) . 2004; 131(2): 413-24.
Kuroda H, Wessely O, De Robertis EM Neural induction in Xenopus: requirement for ectodermal and endomesodermal signals via Chordin, Noggin, beta-Catenin, and Cerberus. PLoS biology. . 2004; 2(5): E92.
Unterseher F, Hefele JA, Giehl K, De Robertis EM, Wedlich D, Schambony A Paraxial protocadherin coordinates cell polarity during convergent extension via Rho A and JNK. Embo J. 2004; 23(16): 3259-69.
Oelgeschlager M, Kuroda H, Reversade B, De Robertis EM Chordin is required for the Spemann organizer transplantation phenomenon in Xenopus embryos. Dev Cell. 2003; 4(2): 219-30.
Pera EM, Martinez SL, Flanagan JJ, Brechner M, Wessely O, De Robertis EM Darmin is a novel secreted protein expressed during endoderm development in Xenopus. Gene expression patterns : GEP. . 2003; 3(2): 147-52.
Pera EM, Ikeda A, Eivers E, De Robertis EM Integration of IGF, FGF, and anti-BMP signals via Smad1 phosphorylation in neural induction. Genes & development. . 2003; 17(24): 3023-8.
Larrain J, Brown C, De Robertis EM Integrin-alpha3 mediates binding of Chordin to the cell surface and promotes its endocytosis. EMBO Rep. 2003; 4(8): 813-8.
Oelgeschlager M, Reversade B, Larrain J, Little S, Mullins MC, De Robertis EM The pro-BMP activity of Twisted gastrulation is independent of BMP binding. Development. 2003; 130(17): 4047-56.
Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Shneyder N, Tran U, Anderson R, Rossant J, De Robertis EM The role of chordin/Bmp signals in mammalian pharyngeal development and DiGeorge syndrome. Development (Cambridge, England) . 2003; 130(15): 3567-78.
Garcia Abreu J, Coffinier C, Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, De Robertis EM Chordin-like CR domains and the regulation of evolutionarily conserved extracellular signaling systems. Gene. 2002; 287(1-2): 39-47.
Abreu JG, Ketpura NI, Reversade B, De Robertis EM Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) modulates cell signalling by BMP and TGF-beta. Nat Cell Biol. 2002; 4(8): 599-604.
Pera EM, Kim JI, Martinez SL, Brechner M, Li SY, Wessely O, De Robertis EM Isthmin is a novel secreted protein expressed as part of the Fgf-8 synexpression group in the Xenopus midbrain-hindbrain organizer. Mechanisms of development. . 2002; 116(1-2): 169-72.
Coffinier C, Ketpura N, Tran U, Geissert D, De Robertis EM Mouse Crossveinless-2 is the vertebrate homolog of a Drosophila extracellular regulator of BMP signaling. Mechanisms of development. . 2002; 119 Suppl 1: S179-84.
Wessely O, De Robertis EM Neural plate patterning by secreted signals. Neuron. . 2002; 33(4): 489-91.
Wessely O, Tran U, Zakin L, De Robertis EM Identification and expression of the mammalian homologue of Bicaudal-C. Mechanisms of development. . 2001; 101(1-2): 267-70.
De Robertis EM, Wessely O, Oelgeschlager M, Brizuela B, Pera E, Larrain J, Abreu J, Bachiller D Molecular mechanisms of cell-cell signaling by the Spemann-Mangold organizer. Int J Dev Biol. 2001; 45(1): 189-97.
Pera EM, Wessely O, Li SY, De Robertis EM Neural and head induction by insulin-like growth factor signals. Developmental cell. . 2001; 1(5): 655-65.
Pera EM, Wessely O, Li SY, De Robertis EM Neural and head induction by insulin-like growth factor signals. Developmental cell. . 2001; 1(5): 655-65.
Wessely O, Agius E, Oelgeschlager M, Pera EM, De Robertis EM Neural induction in the absence of mesoderm: beta-catenin-dependent expression of secreted BMP antagonists at the blastula stage in Xenopus. Dev Biol. 2001; 234(1): 161-73.
Coffinier C, Tran U, Larrain J, De Robertis EM Neuralin-1 is a novel Chordin-related molecule expressed in the mouse neural plate. Mech Dev. 2001; 100(1): 119-22.
De Robertis EM, Bouwmeester T New twists on embryonic patterning. EMBO workshop: embryonic organizer signaling: the next frontiers. EMBO reports. . 2001; 2(8): 661-5.
Brizuela BJ, Wessely O, De Robertis EM Overexpression of the Xenopus tight-junction protein claudin causes randomization of the left-right body axis. Developmental biology. . 2001; 230(2): 217-29.
Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, Ketpura NI, Reversade B, Zakin L, De Robertis EM Proteolytic cleavage of Chordin as a switch for the dual activities of Twisted gastrulation in BMP signaling. Development. 2001; 128(22): 4439-47.
Pera EM, De Robertis EM A direct screen for secreted proteins in Xenopus embryos identifies distinct activities for the Wnt antagonists Crescent and Frzb-1. Mechanisms of development. . 2000; 96(2): 183-95.
Larrain J, Bachiller D, Lu B, Agius E, Piccolo S, De Robertis EM BMP-binding modules in chordin: a model for signalling regulation in the extracellular space. Development. 2000; 127(4): 821-30.
Belo JA, Bachiller D, Agius E, Kemp C, Borges AC, Marques S, Piccolo S, De Robertis EM Cerberus-like is a secreted BMP and nodal antagonist not essential for mouse development. Genesis. 2000; 26(4): 265-70.
Agius E, Oelgeschlager M, Wessely O, Kemp C, De Robertis EM Endodermal Nodal-related signals and mesoderm induction in Xenopus. Development. 2000; 127(6): 1173-83.
Yamamoto A, Kemp C, Bachiller D, Geissert D, De Robertis EM Mouse paraxial protocadherin is expressed in trunk mesoderm and is not essential for mouse development. Genesis. 2000; 27(2): 49-57.
Wessely O, De Robertis EM The Xenopus homologue of Bicaudal-C is a localized maternal mRNA that can induce endoderm formation. Development (Cambridge, England) . 2000; 127(10): 2053-62.
De Robertis EM, Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, Wessely O The establishment of Spemann's organizer and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Nat Rev Genet. 2000; 1(3): 171-81.
De Robertis EM, Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, Wessely O The establishment of Spemann?s Organizer and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Nature Reviews Genetics 2000; 1, 171-181.
Oelgeschlager M, Larrain J, Geissert D, De Robertis EM The evolutionarily conserved BMP-binding protein Twisted gastrulation promotes BMP signalling. Nature. 2000; 405(6788): 757-63.
Oelgeschlager M, Larrain J, Geissert D, De Robertis EM The evolutionary conserved BMP-binding protein Twisted Gastrulation promotes BMP signalling. Nature 2000; 405, 757-763.
Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo JA, Anderson RM, May SR, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Harland RM, Rossant J, De Robertis EM The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. . 2000; 403(6770): 658-61.
Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo JA, Anderson RM, May SR, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Harland RM, Rossant J, De Robertis EM The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. . 2000; 403(6770): 658-61.
Kim SH, Jen WC, De Robertis EM, Kintner C The protocadherin PAPC establishes segmental boundaries during somitogenesis in xenopus embryos. Current biology : CB. . 2000; 10(14): 821-30.
De Robertis EM A nose for the embryo: the work of Pieter Nieuwkoop. The International journal of developmental biology. . 1999; 43(7): 603-4.
Duprez D, Leyns L, Bonnin MA, Lapointe F, Etchevers H, De Robertis EM, Le Douarin N Expression of Frzb-1 during chick development. Mechanisms of development. . 1999; 89(1-2): 179-83.
Konishi Y, Tominaga M, Watanabe Y, Imamura F, Goldfarb A, Maki R, Blum M, De Robertis EM, Tominaga A GOOSECOID inhibits erythrocyte differentiation by competing with Rb for PU.1 binding in murine cells. Oncogene. . 1999; 18(48): 6795-805.
Zhu L, Belo JA, De Robertis EM, Stern CD Goosecoid regulates the neural inducing strength of the mouse node. Developmental biology. . 1999; 216(1): 276-81.
Piccolo S, Agius E, Leyns L, Bhattacharyya S, Grunz H, Bouwmeester T, De Robertis EM The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. Nature. . 1999; 397(6721): 707-10.
Piccolo S, Agius E, Leyns L, Bhattacharyya S, Grunz H, Bouwmeester T, De Robertis EM The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. Nature. . 1999; 397(6721): 707-10.
Agius PE, Piccolo S, De Robertis EM [The head inducer Cerberus in a multivalent extracellular inhibitor]. J Soc Biol. 1999; 193(4-5): 347-54.
Blumberg B, Kang H, Bolado Jr. J, Chen H, Craig AG, Moreno TA, Umesono K, Perlmann T, De Robertis EM, Evans RM BXR, an embryonic orphan nuclear receptor activated by a novel class of endogenous benzoate metabolites. Genes Dev. 1998; 12(9): 1269-77.
Pillemer G, Epstein M, Blumberg B, Yisraeli JK, De Robertis EM, Steinbeisser H, Fainsod A Nested expression and sequential downregulation of the Xenopus caudal genes along the anterior-posterior axis. Mechanisms of development. . 1998; 71(1-2): 193-6.
Belo JA, Leyns L, Yamada G, De Robertis EM The prechordal midline of the chondrocranium is defective in Goosecoid-1 mouse mutants. Mechanisms of development. . 1998; 72(1-2): 15-25.
Yamamoto A, Amacher SL, Kim SH, Geissert D, Kimmel CB, De Robertis EM Zebrafish paraxial protocadherin is a downstream target of spadetail involved in morphogenesis of gastrula mesoderm. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1998; 125(17): 3389-97.
Belo JA, Bouwmeester T, Leyns L, Kertesz N, Gallo M, Follettie M, De Robertis EM Cerberus-like is a secreted factor with neutralizing activity expressed in the anterior primitive endoderm of the mouse gastrula. Mechanisms of development. . 1997; 68(1-2): 45-57.
Piccolo S, Agius E, Lu B, Goodman S, Dale L, De Robertis EM Cleavage of Chordin by Xolloid metalloprotease suggests a role for proteolytic processing in the regulation of Spemann organizer activity. Cell. . 1997; 91(3): 407-16.
Pfeffer PL, De Robertis EM, Izpisua-Belmonte JC Crescent, a novel chick gene encoding a Frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain, is expressed in anterior regions during early embryogenesis. The International journal of developmental biology. . 1997; 41(3): 449-58.
Sasai Y, De Robertis EM Ectodermal patterning in vertebrate embryos. Dev Biol. 1997; 182(1): 5-20.
De Robertis EM Evolutionary biology. The ancestry of segmentation. Nature. 1997; 387(6628): 25-6.
Leyns L, Bouwmeester T, Kim SH, Piccolo S, De Robertis EM Frzb-1 is a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling expressed in the Spemann organizer. Cell. . 1997; 88(6): 747-56.
Heanue TA, Johnson RL, Izpisua-Belmonte JC, Stern CD, De Robertis EM, Tabin CJ Goosecoid misexpression alters the morphology and Hox gene expression of the developing chick limb bud. Mechanisms of development. . 1997; 69(1-2): 31-7.
De Robertis EM, Kim S, Leyns L, Piccolo S, Bachiller D, Agius E, Belo JA, Yamamoto A, Hainski-Brousseau A, Brizuela B, Wessely O, Lu B, Bouwmeester T Patterning by genes expressed in Spemann's organizer. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997; 62: 169-75.
De Robertis EM, Sasai Y A common plan for dorsoventral patterning in Bilateria. Nature. . 1996; 380(6569): 37-40.
Catala M, Teillet MA, De Robertis EM, Le Douarin ML A spinal cord fate map in the avian embryo: while regressing, Hensen's node lays down the notochord and floor plate thus joining the spinal cord lateral walls. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1996; 122(9): 2599-610.
Bouwmeester T, Kim S, Sasai Y, Lu B, De Robertis EM Cerberus is a head-inducing secreted factor expressed in the anterior endoderm of Spemann's organizer. Nature. 1996; 382(6592): 595-601.
Piccolo S, Sasai Y, Lu B, De Robertis EM Dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus: inhibition of ventral signals by direct binding of chordin to BMP-4. Cell. . 1996; 86(4): 589-98.
Sasai Y, Lu B, Piccolo S, De Robertis EM Endoderm induction by the organizer-secreted factors chordin and noggin in Xenopus animal caps. The EMBO journal. . 1996; 15(17): 4547-55.
Gont LK, Fainsod A, Kim SH, De Robertis EM Overexpression of the homeobox gene Xnot-2 leads to notochord formation in Xenopus. Developmental biology. . 1996; 174(1): 174-8.
Holley SA, Neul JL, Attisano L, Wrana JL, Sasai Y, O'Connor MB, De Robertis EM, Ferguson EL The Xenopus dorsalizing factor noggin ventralizes Drosophila embryos by preventing DPP from activating its receptor. Cell. . 1996; 86(4): 607-17.
Holley SA, Jackson PD, Sasai Y, Lu B, De Robertis EM, Hoffmann FM, Ferguson EL A conserved system for dorsal-ventral patterning in insects and vertebrates involving sog and chordin. Nature. . 1995; 376(6537): 249-53.
De Robertis EM Developmental biology. Dismantling the organizer. Nature. . 1995; 374(6521): 407-8.
Sasal Y, Lu B, Steinbelsser H, De Robertis EM Regulation of neural induction by the Chd and Bmp-4 antagonistic patterning signals in Xenopus. Nature. . 1995; 378(6555): 419.
Sasai Y, Lu B, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM Regulation of neural induction by the Chd and Bmp-4 antagonistic patterning signals in Xenopus. Nature. . 1995; 377(6551): 757.
Yamada G, Mansouri A, Torres M, Stuart ET, Blum M, Schultz M, De Robertis EM, Gruss P Targeted mutation of the murine goosecoid gene results in craniofacial defects and neonatal death. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1995; 121(9): 2917-22.
Guenet JL, Simon-Chazottes D, de Robertis E, Blum M The mouse goosecoid gene (Gsc) maps to the telomeric part of mouse chromosome 12. Mamm Genome. 1995; 6(11): 816-7.
Steinbeisser H, Fainsod A, Niehrs C, Sasai Y, De Robertis EM The role of gsc and BMP-4 in dorsal-ventral patterning of the marginal zone in Xenopus: a loss-of-function study using antisense RNA. The EMBO journal. . 1995; 14(21): 5230-43.
Schulte-Merker S, Hammerschmidt M, Beuchle D, Cho KW, De Robertis EM, Nusslein-Volhard C Expression of zebrafish goosecoid and no tail gene products in wild-type and mutant no tail embryos. Development. 1994; 120(4): 843-52.
Niehrs C, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM Mesodermal patterning by a gradient of the vertebrate homeobox gene goosecoid. Science. 1994; 263(5148): 817-20.
Blum M, De Robertis EM, Kojis T, Heinzmann C, Klisak I, Geissert D, Sparkes RS Molecular cloning of the human homeobox gene goosecoid (GSC) and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 14q32.1. Genomics. . 1994; 21(2): 388-93.
Fainsod A, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM On the function of BMP-4 in patterning the marginal zone of the Xenopus embryo. Embo J. 1994; 13(21): 5015-25.
Pfeffer PL, De Robertis EM Regional specificity of RAR gamma isoforms in Xenopus development. Mechanisms of development. . 1994; 45(2): 147-53.
De Robertis EM, Fainsod A, Gont LK, Steinbeisser H The evolution of vertebrate gastrulation. Dev Suppl. 1994; 117-24.
Sasai Y, Lu B, Steinbeisser H, Geissert D, Gont LK, De Robertis EM Xenopus chordin: a novel dorsalizing factor activated by organizer-specific homeobox genes. Cell. . 1994; 79(5): 779-90.
Jones FS, Holst BD, Minowa O, De Robertis EM, Edelman GM Binding and transcriptional activation of the promoter for the neural cell adhesion molecule by HoxC6 (Hox-3.3). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 1993; 90(14): 6557-61.
Bittner D, De Robertis EM, Cho KW Characterization of the Xenopus Hox 2.4 gene and identification of control elements in its intron. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. . 1993; 196(1): 11-24.
Gaunt SJ, Blum M, De Robertis EM Expression of the mouse goosecoid gene during mid-embryogenesis may mark mesenchymal cell lineages in the developing head, limbs and body wall. Development. 1993; 117(2): 769-78.
Gont LK, Steinbeisser H, Blumberg B, de Robertis EM Tail formation as a continuation of gastrulation: the multiple cell populations of the Xenopus tailbud derive from the late blastopore lip. Development. 1993; 119(4): 991-1004.
Izpisua-Belmonte JC, De Robertis EM, Storey KG, Stern CD The homeobox gene goosecoid and the origin of organizer cells in the early chick blastoderm. Cell. 1993; 74(4): 645-59.
Niehrs C, Keller R, Cho KW, De Robertis EM The homeobox gene goosecoid controls cell migration in Xenopus embryos. Cell. . 1993; 72(4): 491-503.
Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM, Ku M, Kessler DS, Melton DA Xenopus axis formation: induction of goosecoid by injected Xwnt-8 and activin mRNAs. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1993; 118(2): 499-507.
Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM Xenopus goosecoid: a gene expressed in the prechordal plate that has dorsalizing activity. C R Acad Sci III. 1993; 316(9): 959-71.
Jegalian BG, Miller RW, Wright CV, Blum M, De Robertis EM A Hox 3.3-lacZ transgene expressed in developing limbs. Mechanisms of development. . 1992; 39(3): 171-80.
Jones FS, Prediger EA, Bittner DA, De Robertis EM, Edelman GM Cell adhesion molecules as targets for Hox genes: neural cell adhesion molecule promoter activity is modulated by cotransfection with Hox-2.5 and -2.4. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 1992; 89(6): 2086-90.
Leroy P, De Robertis EM Effects of lithium chloride and retinoic acid on the expression of genes from the Xenopus laevis Hox 2 complex. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. . 1992; 194(1): 21-32.
Blum M, Gaunt SJ, Cho KW, Steinbeisser H, Blumberg B, Bittner D, De Robertis EM Gastrulation in the mouse: the role of the homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell. . 1992; 69(7): 1097-106.
Jegalian BG, De Robertis EM Homeotic transformations in the mouse induced by overexpression of a human Hox3.3 transgene. Cell. . 1992; 71(6): 901-10.
Blumberg B, Mangelsdorf DJ, Dyck JA, Bittner DA, Evans RM, De Robertis EM Multiple retinoid-responsive receptors in a single cell: families of retinoid "X" receptors and retinoic acid receptors in the Xenopus egg. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 1992; 89(6): 2321-5.
Storey KG, Crossley JM, De Robertis EM, Norris WE, Stern CD Neural induction and regionalisation in the chick embryo. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1992; 114(3): 729-41.
Niehrs C, De Robertis EM Vertebrate axis formation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992; 2(4): 550-5.
Niehrs C, De Robertis EM Ectopic expression of a homeobox gene changes cell fate in Xenopus embryos in a position-specific manner. The EMBO journal. . 1991; 10(12): 3621-9.
De Robertis EM, Morita EA, Cho KW Gradient fields and homeobox genes. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1991; 112(3): 669-78.
Cho KW, Blumberg B, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM Molecular nature of Spemann's organizer: the role of the Xenopus homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell. . 1991; 67(6): 1111-20.
Blumberg B, Wright CV, De Robertis EM, Cho KW Organizer-specific homeobox genes in Xenopus laevis embryos. Science. . 1991; 253(5016): 194-6.
Cho KW, Morita EA, Wright CV, De Robertis EM Overexpression of a homeodomain protein confers axis-forming activity to uncommitted Xenopus embryonic cells. Cell. . 1991; 65(1): 55-64.
Cho KW, De Robertis EM Differential activation of Xenopus homeo box genes by mesoderm-inducing growth factors and retinoic acid. Genes & development. . 1990; 4(11): 1910-6.
Oliver G, De Robertis EM, Wolpert L, Tickle C Expression of a homeobox gene in the chick wing bud following application of retinoic acid and grafts of polarizing region tissue. The EMBO journal. . 1990; 9(10): 3093-9.
Molven A, Wright CV, Bremiller R, De Robertis EM, Kimmel CB Expression of a homeobox gene product in normal and mutant zebrafish embryos: evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1990; 109(2): 279-88.
Livingston BD, De Robertis EM, Paulson JC Expression of beta-galactoside alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase blocks synthesis of polysialic acid in Xenopus embryos. Glycobiology. . 1990; 1(1): 39-44.
Chuong CM, Oliver G, Ting SA, Jegalian BG, Chen HM, De Robertis EM Gradients of homeoproteins in developing feather buds. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1990; 110(4): 1021-30.
De Robertis EM, Oliver G, Wright CV Homeobox genes and the vertebrate body plan. Sci Am. 1990; 263(1): 46-52.
Wright CV, Morita EA, Wilkin DJ, De Robertis EM The Xenopus XIHbox 6 homeo protein, a marker of posterior neural induction, is expressed in proliferating neurons. Development (Cambridge, England) . 1990; 109(1): 225-34.
Jegalian BG, De Robertis EM The Xenopus laevis Hox 2.1 homeodomain protein is expressed in a narrow band of the hindbrain. The International journal of developmental biology. . 1990; 34(4): 453-6.
Oliver G, Sidell N, Fiske W, Heinzmann C, Mohandas T, Sparkes RS, De Robertis EM Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds. Genes & development. . 1989; 3(5): 641-50.
De Robertis EM, Oliver G, Wright CV Determination of axial polarity in the vertebrate embryo: homeodomain proteins and homeogenetic induction. Cell. . 1989; 57(2): 189-91.
Fritz AF, Cho KW, Wright CV, Jegalian BG, De Robertis EM Duplicated homeobox genes in Xenopus. Developmental biology. . 1989; 131(2): 584-8.
Wright CV, Cho KW, Hardwicke J, Collins RH, De Robertis EM Interference with function of a homeobox gene in Xenopus embryos produces malformations of the anterior spinal cord. Cell. . 1989; 59(1): 81-93.
Wright CV, Cho KW, Oliver G, De Robertis EM Vertebrate homeodomain proteins: families of region-specific transcription factors. Trends in biochemical sciences. . 1989; 14(2): 52-6.
Wright CV, Schnegelsberg P, De Robertis EM XlHbox 8: a novel Xenopus homeo protein restricted to a narrow band of endoderm. Development. 1989; 105(4): 787-94.
Oliver G, Wright CV, Hardwicke J, De Robertis EM A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos. Cell. . 1988; 55(6): 1017-24.
Oliver G, Wright CV, Hardwicke J, De Robertis EM Differential antero-posterior expression of two proteins encoded by a homeobox gene in Xenopus and mouse embryos. Embo J. 1988; 7(10): 3199-209.
Cho KW, Goetz J, Wright CV, Fritz A, Hardwicke J, De Robertis EM Differential utilization of the same reading frame in a Xenopus homeobox gene encodes two related proteins sharing the same DNA-binding specificity. The EMBO journal. . 1988; 7(7): 2139-49.
De Robertis EM, Burglin TR, Fritz A, Oliver G, Cho K, Wright CV Sequence conservations in vertebrate homeo-box mRNAs. Arch Biol Med Exp (Santiago). 1988; 21(3-4): 443-7.
Fritz AF, Martin G, Wright CV, De Robertis EM Site-specific inversions in repeated Xenopus laevis homeobox gene 2 sequences. Nucleic acids research. . 1988; 16(18): 9058.
Fritz A, De Robertis EM Xenopus homeobox-containing cDNAs expressed in early development. Nucleic acids research. . 1988; 16(4): 1453-69.
Mattaj IW, Coppard NJ, Brown RS, Clark BF, De Robertis EM 42S p48--the most abundant protein in previtellogenic Xenopus oocytes--resembles elongation factor 1 alpha structurally and functionally. Embo J. 1987; 6(8): 2409-13.
Wright CV, Cho KW, Fritz A, Burglin TR, De Robertis EM A Xenopus laevis gene encodes both homeobox-containing and homeobox-less transcripts. Embo J. 1987; 6(13): 4083-94.
Sharpe CR, Fritz A, De Robertis EM, Gurdon JB A homeobox-containing marker of posterior neural differentiation shows the importance of predetermination in neural induction. Cell. . 1987; 50(5): 749-58.
Burglin TR, De Robertis EM The nuclear migration signal of Xenopus laevis nucleoplasmin. Embo J. 1987; 6(9): 2617-25.
Burglin TR, Wright CV, De Robertis EM Translational control in homoeobox mRNAs?. Nature. 1987; 330(6150): 701-2.
Newmeyer DD, Lucocq JM, Burglin TR, De Robertis EM Assembly in vitro of nuclei active in nuclear protein transport: ATP is required for nucleoplasmin accumulation. Embo J. 1986; 5(3): 501-10.
Mattaj IW, Lienhard S, Jiricny J, De Robertis EM An enhancer-like sequence within the Xenopus U2 gene promoter facilitates the formation of stable transcription complexes. Nature. . 1985; 316(6024): 163-7.
Mattaj IW, De Robertis EM Nuclear segregation of U2 snRNA requires binding of specific snRNP proteins. Cell. . 1985; 40(1): 111-8.
Mattaj IW, Zeller R, Carrasco AE, Jamrich M, Lienhard S, De Robertis EM U snRNA gene families in Xenopus laevis. Oxford surveys on eukaryotic genes. . 1985; 2: 121-40.
Carrasco AE, McGinnis W, Gehring WJ, De Robertis EM Cloning of an X. laevis gene expressed during early embryogenesis coding for a peptide region homologous to Drosophila homeotic genes. Cell. 1984; 37(2): 409-14.
Shepherd JC, McGinnis W, Carrasco AE, De Robertis EM, Gehring WJ Fly and frog homoeo domains show homologies with yeast mating type regulatory proteins. Nature. . 1984; 310(5972): 70-1.
Fritz A, Parisot R, Newmeyer D, De Robertis EM Small nuclear U-ribonucleoproteins in Xenopus laevis development. Uncoupled accumulation of the protein and RNA components. Journal of molecular biology. . 1984; 178(2): 273-85.
Zeller R, Carri MT, Mattaj IW, De Robertis EM Xenopus laevis U1 snRNA genes: characterisation of transcriptionally active genes reveals major and minor repeated gene families. The EMBO journal. . 1984; 3(5): 1075-81.
Zeller R, Nyffenegger T, De Robertis EM Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of snRNPs and stockpiled snRNA-binding proteins during oogenesis and early development in Xenopus laevis. Cell. . 1983; 32(2): 425-34.
Nishikura K, Kurjan J, Hall BD, De Robertis EM Genetic analysis of the processing of a spliced tRNA. Embo J. 1982; 1(2): 263-8.
De Robertis EM, Lienhard S, Parisot RF Intracellular transport of microinjected 5S and small nuclear RNAs. Nature. . 1982; 295(5850): 572-7.
Matter L, Schopfer K, Wilhelm JA, Nyffenegger T, Parisot RF, De Robertis EM Molecular characterization of ribonucleoprotein antigens bound by antinuclear antibodies. A diagnostic evaluation. Arthritis and rheumatism. . 1982; 25(11): 1278-83.
De Robertis EM, Black P, Nishikura K Intranuclear location of the tRNA splicing enzymes. Cell. . 1981; 23(1): 89-93.
Nishikura K, De Robertis EM RNA processing in microinjected Xenopus oocytes. Sequential addition of base modifications in the spliced transfer RNA. Journal of molecular biology. . 1981; 145(2): 405-20.
Mills AD, Laskey RA, Black P, De Robertis EM An acidic protein which assembles nucleosomes in vitro is the most abundant protein in Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Journal of molecular biology. . 1980; 139(3): 561-8.
Melton DA, Cortese R, de Robertis EM, Trendelenburg MF, Gurdon JB Gene injection into amphibian oocytes. Results Probl Cell Differ. 1980; 11: 8-14.
Melton DA, De Robertis EM, Cortese R Order and intracellular location of the events involved in the maturation of a spliced tRNA. Nature. . 1980; 284(5752): 143-8.
De Robertis EM, Gurdon JB Gene transplantation and the analysis of development. Sci Am. 1979; 241(6): 74-82.
Gurdon JB, Melton DA, De Robertis EM Genetics in an oocyte. Ciba Found Symp. 1979; (66): 63-80.
de Robertis EM, Black P Hybrids of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis express proteins from both parents. Developmental biology. . 1979; 68(1): 334-9.
De Robertis EM Probing the program of gene expression utilized in early development. Arch Biol Med Exp (Santiago). 1979; 12(3): 325-9.
Gurdon JB, Laskey RA, De Robertis EM, Partington GA Reprogramming of transplanted nuclei in amphibia. International review of cytology. Supplement. . 1979; (9): 161-78.
De Robertis EM, Olson MV Transcription and processing of cloned yeast tyrosine tRNA genes microinjected into frog oocytes. Nature. . 1979; 278(5700): 137-43.
De Robertis EM, Longthorne RF, Gurdon JB Intracellular migration of nuclear proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Nature. . 1978; 272(5650): 254-6.
De Robertis EM, Partington GA, Gurdon JB Selective gene expression by somatic nuclei injected into amphibian oocytes. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. . 1978; 283(997): 375-7.
Gurdon JB, Wyllie AH, De Robertis EM The transcription and translation of DNA injected into oocytes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1978; 283(997): 367-72.
De Robertis EM, Mertz JE Coupled transcription-translation of DNA injected into Xenopus oocytes. Cell. . 1977; 12(1): 175-82.
De Robertis EM, Gurdon JB Gene activation in somatic nuclei after injection into amphibian oocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 1977; 74(6): 2470-4.
De Robertis EM, Gurdon JB, Partington GA, Mertz JE, Laskey RA Injected amphibian oocytes: a living test tube for the study of eukaryotic gene transcription?. Biochemical Society symposium. . 1977; (42): 181-91.
De Robertis EM, Partington GA, Longthorne RF, Gurdon JB Somatic nuclei in amphibian oocytes: evidence for selective gene expression. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. . 1977; 40: 199-214.
Wyllie AH, De Robertis EM High tyrosinase activity in albino Xenopus laevis oocytes. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. . 1976; 36(3): 555-9.
Gurdon JB, De Robertis EM, Partington G Injected nuclei in frog oocytes provide a living cell system for the study of transcriptional control. Nature. 1976; 260(5547): 116-20.
Gurdon JB, Partington GA, De Robertis EM Injected nuclei in frog oocytes:RNA synthesis and protein exchange. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. . 1976; 36(3): 541-53.
De Robertis EM, Jr. Judewicz ND, Torres HN Regulation of uracil uptake in Escherichia coli by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976; 426(3): 451-63.
Judewicz ND, De Robertis EM, Jr. Torres HN Control of uracil transport by cyclic AMP in E. coli. FEBS Lett. 1974; 45(1): 155-8.
Judewicz ND, De Robertis EM, Torres HN Inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. . 1973; 52(4): 1257-62.
De Robertis EM, Ezcurra PM, Judewicz ND, Pucci PR, Torres HN Inhibition of E. coli RNA polymerase by polyadenylic acid. FEBS Lett. 1972; 25(1): 175-178.
Narbaitz R, De Robertis EM Steroid-producing cells in chick intersexual gonads. General and comparative endocrinology. . 1970; 14(1): 164-9.


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